Muzaffarpur is a town in Muzaffarpur district in the Indian state of Bihar. It is headquarters of the district.
The town of Muzaffarpur, famous for Leechi, is the largest city of North Bihar. It is situated on the banks of a Himalayan glacier-fed , perennial river Burhi/Budhi Gandak. It has won international encomiums for its delicious Shahi Leechi and China Leechi.In British period ,world famous American writer and Novelist Mark Twain , while visiting this town has written in his book -“Following the Equator”, Ch LVII………a great region which was an endless garden miles of the beautiful flower from whose juice comes the opium,and at Muzaffarpore we were in the midst of the Indigo culture.Father of the Indian nation , Mahatma Gandhi came to Muzaffarpur in 1918 on his way to Motihari to redress grievances of the Champaran indigo farmers .In his autobiography, Chapter -“The Gentle Bihari”, he has written how he passed some delightful days in Muzaffarpur. In 1902, Noble Prize Winner Indian Bengali poet Rabindra Nath Tagore was accorded civic reception by the citizens of Muzaffarpur Town. In 1908, the first bomb outrage,a sign of militant Nationalism, occurred at Muzaffarpur and Khudiram Bose,a Bengali boy, offered his life for the freedom of India. Dr.Rajendra Prasad , the first President of Indian Republic was,for some time, a Professor in Local College , named Langat Singh College. This college has also seen the names like late Mahadevi Verma and Acharya Kriplani as professors. Muzaffarpur Town is one of the many Gateways to Nepal . Clothes and food-grains are traded between Nepal and Muzaffarpur.Babu Devaki Nandan Khatri , author of Chandrakanta Santati , was born in the village of Benibad.Hundreds of thousands of people learnt Hindi so that they could read Chadrakanta Santati.
Muzaffarpur is the place where the world famous poet and scholar in English and Hindi, Dr. Samiran Kumar Paul is living.His forefathers were from Pal Dynasty rulers in Bihar and Bengal. Muzaffarpur is located at 26°07′N 85°24′E26.12°N 85.4°E. The town lies in a highly active seismic zone of India. In the disastrous earthquake on 15 Jan , 1934 ,much of the town suffered sever damages and loss of lives. It has an average elevation of 47 meters (154 feet). This sauacer shaped ,low-centered town lies on the great Indo-Gangetic plain of Bihar,over the Himalayan silt and sand ,brought by the glacier and rain fed meandering rivers of the Great Himalayas . The soil of the town is highly fertile ,well drained , sandy type ,white colored and very soft to touch and till . The land scape is soothing green round the year.The town is surrounded by the flood plains in green settings dotted with sweetwater ponds and crescent old river channels , with sparkling whitish sandy river banks and unpolluted air and water. Numerous private fruit orchards and idyllic rivers are ideal for picnics/adventures/camping/outings, though local tourism is conspicuous by its absence. The city has a water table just 20 ft. below ground level and landscape is green throughout the year.The city has a non-operational civil Aerodrome,Patahi, belonging to the Airport Authority of India with an air strip of 4000 ft. length.
Muzaffarpur now is a rapidly growing city. The growth in the last decade has been phenomenal. Thousands of villagers migrated to this town from nearby villages in the rapid urbanization in post-independence India. But this has created serious law and order problems in the past.The drainage system and garbage disposal system is now disorderly and practically non-existent . The downtown areas of Muzaffarpur are known as Kalyani and Saraiyagunj. Both areas are densely populated with small shops selling a plethora of goods and services, in colourful settings and buzzing with large crowds. Motijheel is the main shopping area. Chakkar Maidan (Oval) is a place where there is small settlement of the Territorial Army non-departmental unit 151 Inf Bn (TA) JAT. Muzaffarpur Town has some ancient temples like Baba Garib Nath(Shiva Temple), Chaturbhuj-sthan, Raj Rajeswar Devi Kali(Durga), Temple of Raj Darbhanga and Kalibari, the Kali temple . There are also several large and small places of worship of other religious communities like the Sikhs (Gurudwara at Ramna), Rama Krishna Ashram ( in Bela – mithan pura ) Muslims (Badi masjid at Company Bagh), Buddhists, Jains, Christians, etc.
Muzaffarpur , ‘The Land Of Leechi’ was created in 1860s for the sake of administrative convenience by splitting up the earlier district of Tirhut. The present town of Muzaffarpur came into existence in the 18th century and named after Muzaffar Khan, an Amil (Revenue Officer) under British Dynasty.
The recorded history of the district dates back to the rise of the Vrijjan Republic. The center of political power also shifted from Mithila to Vaishali. The Vrijjan Republic was a confederation of eight clans of which the Licchavis were the most powerful and influential. Even the powerful kingdom of Magadh had to conclude matrimonial alliances in 519 B.C. with the neighboring estates of the Licchavis. Ajatshatru invaded Vaishali and extended his sway over Tirhut. It was at this time that Patliputra (the modern Patna) was founded at the village Patali on the banks of the sacred river Ganga and Ajatshatru built an invincible fortress to keep vigil over the Licchavis on the other side of the river. Ambarati, 40 km from Muzaffarpur is believed to be the village home of Amrapali, the famous Royal court dancer of Vaishali.
From the visit of the Hieuen Tsang’s till the rise of the Pala dynasty, area was under the control of Harsha Vardhan, a powerful sovereign of North India. After 647 A.D. The district passed on to the local chiefs. In the 8th century A.D. the Pala kings continued to have their hold over Tirhut until 1019 A.D. Chedi kings of Central India also exercised their influence over Tirhut till they were replaced by the rulers of the Sena dynasty towards the close of the 11the century.
Between 1211 & 1226, Ghais-u-ddin Iwaz, the ruler of Bengal, was the first Muslim invader of Tirhut. He, however, could not succeed in conquering the kingdom but extorted tributes. It was in 1323 that Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq established his control over the district.
Towards the close of the 14th century the whole of North Bihar including Tirhut passed on to the kings of Jaunpur and remained under their control for nearly a century until Sikandar Lodi of Delhi defeated the king of Jaunpur. Meanwhile, Hussain Shah, the Nawab of Bengal had become so powerful that he exercised his control over large tracts including Tirhut. The emperor of Delhi advanced against Hussain Shah in 1499 and got control over Tirhut after defeating its Raja. The power of the Nawabs of Bengal began to wane and with the decline and fall of Mahood Shah, north Bihar including Tirhut formed a part of the mighty Mughal Empire. Though Muzaffarpur with the entire north Bihar had been annexed yet the petty powerful chieftains continued to exercise effective control over this area till the days of Daud Khan, the Nawab of Bengal. Daud Khan had his stronghold at Patna and Hajipur and after his fall a separate Subah of Bihar was constituted under the Mughal dynasty and Tirhut formed a part of it.
The victory of East India Company in 1764 at the battle of Buxar gave them control over whole of Bihar and they succeeded in subduing the entire district. The success of the insurgent at Delhi in 1857 caused grave concern to the English inhabitants in this district and revolutionary fervor began to permeate the entire district. Muzaffarpur played its role and was the site of the famous bomb case of 1908. The young East Bengali Hindu revolutionary, Khudi Ram Bose, a boy of barely 18 years was hanged for throwing the bomb at the carriage of Pringle Kennedy who was actually mistaken for Kingsford, the District Judge of Muzaffarpur. After independence, a memorial to this young revolutionary patriot was constructed at Muzaffarpur, which still stands. The visit of Mahatma Gandhi along with eminent nationalists like Anugrah Narayan Sinha,Sri Krishna Singh to Muzaffarpur in December 1918 and again in January 1927 had tremendous political effect in arousing the latent feelings of the people and the district continued to play a prominent role in the country’s struggle for freedom. Muzaffarpur also played a critical role in the Khadi revolution. Many local freedom fighters of Muzaffarpur were pivotal in Indian independence struggle in India. Muzaffarpur was mainly populated by Bengali Collectors, Commissioners, Businessmen, Industrialista, Land-owners, Professors , Engineers, lawyers and many others since the period of The British Rule and even after independence upto early seventies.Bengalis have very remarkable contribution in bringing the city from antiquity to Modernity.
The summer, April-June is extremely hot and humid (28/40 deg C,90% Max.) and winter is pleasntly cold, around 06/20 deg C .The air pollution is comparatively less ,so the air is comparatively clean.Best months to visit are Oct-Mar.It is better to avoid visits in summer and monsoon ( Mid Jun to Sep) due to prolonged power-cuts ,heat and rain flooding in the town.
Now-a-days Muzaffarpur is famous for exporting lichi .Long ago ,the area was famous for hand-woven textiles , sugar cane ,Indigo, Opium etc. The district has a few sugar mills – now old and dilapidated. It has been the commercial hub of North Bihar and the wholesale market of all types of Mumbai , Surat and Ahmedabad Textiles mills in famous Marwari community dominated Suta Patti.Commodities wholesalers are in “Gola” Market of Saraiyagunj. Commercial hub of the town is Motijheel.
Muzaffarpur area is largely an agricultural based economy. The principal agricultural crops are rice, wheat, pulses , jute, maize and oil seeds. Cauliflower, cabbage, tomato, radish, carrot, beet-root etc. are some of the vegetables . Rice and wheat account for the major portion of the gross area sown. Maize is the next important crop for the district. Sugar cane, potato and barley are some of the non-cereal crops grown. The district is famous for delicious-mango and lichi, which are exported to other parts of the country & even abroad. Main livestock of the town includes cows, buffaloes, bulls and bullocks, sheep, goats and pigs and poultary . Muzaffarpur Town has several Industries, big and small. Prabhat Zarda Factory, Bharat Wagon and Engineering Ltd., 220 MW thermal power plant, at present defunct , Bihar Drugs & Organic Chemicals Ltd., Muzaffarpur – a unit of IDPL, units of Leather Development Corporation, Muzaffarpur Dairy, a unit of the Bihar State Dairy Corporation unit Bihar State Cooperative Milk Producers’ Federation Ltd, Muzaffarpur producing Sudha brand packaged milk are the major industries located in Muzaffarpur town and its periphery. The above industries have generated considerable employment and have also been helpful in establishing a number of small industries including a few cottage industries. The most important item that is manufactured in Muzaffarpur town is railway wagon. Muzaffarpur town is a important centre for the wholesale cloth trade . Agro-based Industries are also established in the town.
Leechi crop which is available from May to June only is mainly cultivated in the districts of Muzaffarpur, Vaishali, Sitamarhi, West & East Chaparan, Darbhanga and Samastipur in area of about 25.27 thousand hectare with total production of about 3 Lakhs tones which is roughly 70% of national output in 54% of the area under leechi plantation in the country. The quality of litchi exported from India is considered to be best thoughIndia’s share would amount to less than 1%.
As of 2001 India census, Muzaffarpur city had a population of 305,465. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Muzaffarpur has an average literacy rate of 60%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 62%, and female literacy is 57%. In Muzaffarpur, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age.
As of 2001,Muzaffarpur district had a population of 3,743,836, out of which 1,941,480 was male population and 1802356 was female population. Male to feamle population ratio for the district was 1000:928. The district has an average literacy rate of 48.15%:male literacy is 60.19%, and female literacy is 35.20%.
Many languages are spoken in Muzaffarpur. The major dialect of the region is Vajjika, -a close mix of Maithili and Bhojpuri. Hindi is the official language. Other dialects from other regions of Bihar spoken are Angika, Bhojpuri, Bengali, Maithili and Urdu.
Cuisine and Drinks
There is no specific ,authentic and purely “Muzaffarpur cuisine” as such and most of the cuisine can at best be termed as regional cuisine.The basic ingredients are rice,wheat-flour,variety of lentils,green,yellow,root and leafy vegetables,Indian spices ,ground nut oil,Mustard seed oil,Ghee ,Surar and jaggery etc.The breakfast of ethnic variety- Jalebi,Poori,Samosa,Potato curry -all hot and staming served with propreitery variety of Chutneys,finished with Milk Tea are available in a few Restaurants. Indianised Chinese dishes -mainly noodles,Tandoori and South Indian dishes are also eaten and relished. Most of the ethnic cuisine and special dishes are cooked during festivals , Religious functions and Marriages. Now-a-days ethnic cuisines have given way to the oily ,hot and spicy foods of Pan-India type. Toddy is a fermented juice from Palm Tree has about 5%-8% v/v alcohol,is very popular as poorman’s Beer in Muzaffarpur Town. Desserts- Khaja, Motichoor ka Ladoo, Kala Jamun, Kesaria Peda and Parwal ki Mithai etc. ,but these are common to all over the province. Rice flour Paratha which is Tortilla-like,made from rice powder dough made in boiling water and fried inbutter / ghee.Marua’s Chapati with noni-ka-saag are local dishes liked both by the rich and poor. Pittha, made by powdered rice /wheat dough with sttuffed ground gram(chana) or Milk’s khoya etc. Bagedi,a small sparrow sized bird ,now declared protected,was delicate table bird ,cooked with spicy curry or dry. Chiwra, beaten rice, (a)served with a coat of creamy curd and sugar or jaggery or salt,(b) Deep fried till brown and eaten with red pepper,salt etc.But it is not a purely local food. Makhana kheer-A milk -sugar custard is prepared from water plant seeds Makhana(a kind of dry fruit)-brought from adjoining Darbhanga district .This is also taken puffed . Makuni,a stuffed paratha with (ingredients:baked gram powder i.e.Sattu, onion,chilli, pickles,mustard oil, salt,etc. Dal Pithiis wheat flour cakes boiled in delicious ,spicy dal i.e.Lentil.Chakka,Bachka,Kachri(Not Kachori),Phulori-all resembling Pakodas- are local oil fried Vegetable+Lentil powder mixture. Sawa /Kauni rice Kheer (Pudding) are also very popular. A variety of spicy dry,baked ,fried,deep fried and curried Mutton Goat’s Meat , Chicken , fish and Shellfish are prepared and eaten.Mughalai and a few Continental dishes, such as Macroni,Spaghetti , duly Indianised are home cooked and relished by some people.Pre and post dinner Beetel (Paan)Chewing-mainly dashed with (Zarda ) scented and finely cut , premium variety tobacco is very popular .
Muzaffarpur is the 3rd leading centre of education in Bihar after Patna and Bhagalpur. It has a medical and an engineering college and is seat of one of the oldest universities of Bihar (Bihar University, now known as B. R. Ambedkar Bihar University. L.S.College is one of the oldest college here. The first President of Indian Republic – “Dr Rajendra Prasad” was a teacher in the Greer Bhumihiar Brahman College, Muzaffarpur.
- Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology (1954) – Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology is a premier technical institution of eastern India established in 1954. MIT, Muzaffarpur is under administrative control of department of science and technology and wholly funded by Govt. of Bihar. It is affiliated to B.R.A. Bihar University and offers UG courses in seven streams of engineering with postgraduate specialisation in Machine design and thermal engineering. The institute caters to the research and development activities of the state of Bihar.
- S.K.Medical College (1969)
- B. R. Ambedkar Bihar University (earlier Bihar University)[ http://www.brabu.net] – Bihar University is a public university located in the north prime of Bihar state in the city of Muzaffarpur in India. Established in 1960, this university has 37 constituent colleges. Distance education courses are also offered. Besides, the university also organizes symposia, seminars and workshops. The university is a premier institution of teaching and learning in the city and offers various full-time and part-time courses ranging from undergraduate to postgraduate and research level. The university also acts as an affiliated link between several colleges and institutes located across the state in providing higher education such as:
- Langat Singh College (Estd : July 3, 1899) – This the oldest college of Muzaffarpur. Langat Singh College affiliated to the University of Bihar had the likes of Dinkar (a famous Hindi poet), Dr. Rajendra Prasad (the first President of India), and Acharya J. B. Kriplani as its faculty members.
- L.N.Mishra College of Business Management.
- M.D.D.M. College – “Mahant Darshan Das Mahila College”.
- R.D.S. College
- R.M.L College – This college is named after Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia.
- S.K.J. Law College – This college is named after Shree Shreekrishna singh , the first chief minister of bihar , established in year 1948, is one of the premier law college in state of bihar ,
- Nitishwar College – This College named after Nitishwar Singh.
- Zila School- established in British Raj ,produced numerous alumnis, now spread all over the world. excellent symbol of british architecture especially its convocation hall.
- Kendriya Vidyalaya Muzaffarpur.(Largely Known as Central School in India.It is situated in gannipur locality in Muzafarpur,It was opened for Govt. Employee’s sons & daughters. It has branches all over the world very much like embassies.It follows CBSE curriculum. 
- Prabhat Tara SchoolChurch run – One of the oldest and most reputed schools having many distinguished alumni in India and abroad. The school has the largest and the most beautiful campus among all the schools in Muzaffarpur.
- S.A.V. School – The first C.B.S.E affiliated school in Muzaffarpur .
- St. Michael’s School- One of the leading schools in the early 90’s when still more than 60% of people were illiterate.
- D.A.V. Public School – Many students of this school are now highly placed in India and abroad. in the year 2007-08 the school had a magnificent record for 10TH board with Abhishek chowdhary on the first place in district. many students got more than 90% including Shubham, Shamweel Anjum,Shishir etc…
- IGNOU Study Centre – 0504
- St.Mary’s School
- St. Xavier’s School
- Pristine Public School
- R.D.S.College: It is named after Babu Ram Dayalu Singh, the first assembly speaker of Bihar.It is now one of the premier colleges of Bihar.The college has columns of buildings and three ponds.There are four faculties here-Science. Arts, Commerce,and Geography.Still students from West Bengal, Assam, Orrissa and Kerala come to study coomerce and English.
People born in Muzaffarpur
- Ramvriksh Benipuri freedom fighter, nationalist, socialist and eminent writer of Hindi Literature.
- Rameshwar Prasad Sinha eminent freedom fighter,nationalist and Member of Constituent Aseembly.
- Sir Chandeshwar Prasad Narayan Singh -India’s first ambassador to Nepal and later an ambassador to Japan (from 1958) and also the second Governor of Punjab in 1953 and then governor of Uttar Pradesh from 1980 to 1985.
- Dr. Shakeel Ahmad: politician, Union Minister.